unrmm - restores a deleted MH/NMH mail message


  unrmm [options] <msg1> ... <msgN>


unrmm restores "deleted" messages in an MH/NMH mail folder. It will attempt to restore it with the same message number it originally had, but if the original message number is in use, then the restored message will be put at the end of the mailbox's messages.

MH and NMH use directories and files for mail folders and mail messages, with everything for a user being stored in either ~/mail or ~/Mail. (Other directories are possible, but these are the most common.) Each mail folder is its own subdirectory. Each individual mail message is stored in its own file whose name is the message's number in its mailbox.

In most cases, deleting a message (with the rmm command) doesn't actually delete the message, but instead prepends a comma to the message's file name. The comma informs MH not to consider that an "active" mail message. Similarly, when a message is refiled from one folder to another, a copy remains in the original folder but it has a comma prepended to its name.

When specifying messages to restore, unrmm does not distinguish between deleted messages (those with a comma prepended to the message number) and active messages that haven't been deleted. In practical terms, this means that the message number given on the command line -- "unrmm ,12" and "unrmm 12" will act on the same deleted messages.

unrmm tries to restore a message to the same message number it had when it was deleted. If that message number is already in use in the mailbox, then the message will be moved to the end of the mailbox's message list. There are two cases for restored files:


By default, the inbox mail folder will be searched for deleted and active messages. A mail folder may be specified on the command line by preceding the folder name with a plus sign. For example, "unrmm +papers 42" will restore deleted message 42 in the papers mail folder.

Multiple mail folders may be given on a single command line, but only the last folder will be used for message restoration. Thus, "unrmm +docs 42 +verbiage 88 +papers" will not generate an error, but deleted messages 42 and 88 will only be restored in the papers folder.


unrmm takes the following options:


Wayne Morrison,


Copyright 2014 Wayne Morrison

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.


inc(1), nmh(1), refile(1), rmm(1)